Tackling key problems of improved varieties adds "green" and "fragrance" to wheat
- Clasificación:Noticias del sector
- Tiempo de emisión:2019-06-05 11:39
Wheat is the main body of summer grain production. Capturing a good summer grain harvest is the basis for increasing production throughout the year. Among them, Huang Huai wheat area is not only the dominant production area of high-quality and strong wheat, but also the frequent occurrence area of scab. In recent years, scab has occurred frequently and repeatedly, which has seriously threatened the development of China's wheat industry and the safety of rations.
Wheat is the main body of summer grain production. Capturing a good summer grain harvest is the basis for increasing production throughout the year. Among them, Huang Huai wheat area is not only the dominant production area of high-quality and strong wheat, but also the frequent occurrence area of scab. In recent years, scab has occurred frequently and repeatedly, which has seriously threatened the development of China's wheat industry and the safety of rations. Since the national joint research on improved wheat varieties, the research group has focused on the major cutting-edge issues in China's main wheat producing areas, guided and promoted the adjustment of the direction of Wheat Variety Breeding in China, focused on the construction of the test platform for variety characteristics, assisted the breeding of new varieties with the application of modern breeding technology, and accelerated the renewal of green and high-quality wheat varieties.
In late May, the wheat research group carried out on-site display and observation of Scab Resistant, high-quality and strong gluten wheat varieties in Shandong, Anhui and other places, intensively displayed and recommended a number of green and high-quality wheat varieties, and promoted the "rooting" of scientific research achievements.
Resistant varieties fight "rotten wheat"
"Wheat scab was once the main disease in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, but in recent years, due to the change of farming methods and climate, the Huang Huai wheat area has gradually become a frequent area of scab disease." On May 21, Xu Weigang, chief expert of the national wheat improved variety research group, pointed out that under the rapid development trend of scab, the breeding of Scab Resistant Varieties in Huang Huai wheat area is particularly urgent.
At present, wheat scab resistance breeding in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River is in a leading position in China and even the world. A series of scab resistance wheat varieties such as Yangmai, Ningmai and Zhenmai have been widely used in production. "In the wheat area in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, it is in the forefront of the world in terms of breeding of disease resistant varieties, mining of disease resistant genes and application of molecular technology. However, in the Huanghuai wheat area, which is the main wheat producing area in China, breeding parent materials with Huanghuai ecological type are very scarce." Xu Weigang said that compared with the wheat areas in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the breeding of scab resistance in Huang Huai wheat area seriously lags behind the market demand.
Therefore, the goal of the wheat research group is very clear. By establishing the research strategy of "looking for existing popularized varieties, screening in bred new lines and creating new varieties", a number of scab resistant varieties are screened and cultivated, and a large-scale popularization and application in Huang Huai wheat area is realized to steadily improve grain production capacity.
"There was no systematic identification nursery in Huanghuai wheat area before, and only Fujian and other places could be identified. However, the disease pressure was too heavy, resulting in the 'annihilation of all identified varieties' and it was difficult to distinguish the resistance differences." Xu Weigang said that in order to solve this problem, the research team selected three identification nurseries in Nanyang, Henan, Yangzhou, Jiangsu and Lujiang, Anhui, selected varieties in the Huang Huai wheat area as the control, appropriately relaxed the identification indicators, and "customized" the scab resistance identification system in the Huang Huai wheat area, which improved the resistance identification level of breeding materials in the Huang Huai wheat area. Since the national key scientific research on improved wheat varieties was carried out, a number of new Scab Resistant Varieties and breeding materials with the characteristics of Huang Huai ecological type have been screened through 3930 wheat varieties (lines) and Germplasm Resources materials identified in the identification nursery.
Because the incidence of scab is different every year, it is not accurate to judge the resistance of varieties only through the incidence of scab in a certain year, resulting in the "misjudgment" of the resistance grade of many existing varieties. Following the idea of "looking for existing popularized varieties", the research team searched and re identified nationwide, selected a batch of wheat varieties with moderate resistance and susceptibility to scab, including Xinong 511, ruihuamai 520 and Zhengmai 0943, gave play to the driving advantages of enterprises, and promoted the large-scale application of these varieties in Huang Huai wheat area.
"Molecular marker assisted selection breeding technology provides a new way for wheat scab resistance breeding." Ma Hongxiang, a wheat breeding expert of Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, said that in the breeding of Wheat Scab Resistant Varieties, "it is difficult to create disease conditions, one-step inoculation and identify resistance grade" are the "three difficult problems" in the identification of Scab Resistant Varieties. The high-throughput molecular marker detection platform established by the research group has greatly accelerated the breeding process of Scab Resistant Varieties in Huang Huai wheat area.
In the actual grain production, only one disease resistance is often difficult to meet the market demand. "In the process of disease resistance breeding, on the basis of taking scab as the main breeding goal, we should also pay attention to improving the comprehensive resistance of varieties." Kang Zhensheng, academician of the Chinese Academy of engineering and professor of Northwest University of agriculture and forestry science and technology, added. It is understood that in addition to the basic "ability" of resistance to scab, the varieties participating in this exhibition often have other green and high-quality characteristics, such as Xinong 511, a strong gluten, heat-resistant and stripe rust resistant variety, Zhongmai 5051, a strong gluten and cold-resistant water-saving variety, Su 4185, a cold, heat-resistant and powdery mildew resistant variety, and a series of high-quality varieties with multiple resistance, wide adaptability and good agronomic properties.
"The rapid incidence of scab has brought great pressure to the prevention and control work. The breeding of disease resistant varieties is the fundamental guarantee for the realization of green plant protection." Kang Zhensheng said, "the occurrence of scab is affected by many factors such as cultivation conditions and climatic conditions. In addition to breeding disease resistant varieties, it is also necessary to gather scientific research forces in plant protection, cultivation and other fields to jointly tackle key problems."
The industrialization of high-quality wheat begins with variety, and the key is "industrialization"
"The noodles made by Gaoyou 2018 are of good quality, with strong wheat flavor, stable time of Gaoyou 5766 reaching 54 minutes, outstanding quality index of Jimai 44, and konong 2009 not only has good quality, but also has the advantage of resistance to powdery mildew, stripe rust and other diseases..." on May 22, in the 1800 Mu high-quality wheat demonstration area located in yikongqiao village, Gaoli street, Hanting District, Weifang City, 12 high-quality strong gluten wheat varieties and 27 high-quality strong gluten germplasm resources representative of Huang Huai wheat area were intensively displayed. Wheat breeding experts, representatives of flour processing enterprises and seed dealers from all over the world stopped in the field to observe and comment.
With the deepening of agricultural supply side structural reform, the development of high-quality wheat has attracted more and more attention from society, seed enterprises and breeding departments. The high-quality special wheat varieties approved by the state in 2018 increased by nearly 50% compared with three years ago, indicating that China's wheat breeding research has moved to a new level of paying equal attention to high yield, high quality and green on the basis of stable yield.
"For the research group of improved wheat varieties, the rapid development of China's high-quality wheat industry puts forward higher requirements for the breeding of high-quality strong gluten wheat varieties." Xu Weigang, chief expert of the National Research Group on improved wheat varieties, pointed out that "producing high-quality products and creating brands" is the next work direction for the development of high-quality wheat industry.
"Different from the breeding of high-yield varieties, the breeding of high-quality wheat varieties should aim at regional layout, professional production, large-scale management and industrial development, and develop regional advantages into industrial advantages." Xu Weigang pointed out the key to the breeding of high-quality wheat varieties, "the tackling of key problems of improved varieties must not be limited to variety breeding, but also push varieties into actual production and integrate them into the development of the whole industrial chain."
On the same day, at the exhibition of high-quality and strong gluten wheat varieties in Huang Huai wheat area held in Weifang, Shandong Province, the crop institute of Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shandong Luyan Agricultural Seed Co., Ltd. and Shandong Luliang Group signed a strategic cooperation contract for high-quality wheat industry Linyi Fumin wheat professional planting cooperatives signed high-quality wheat order acquisition and planting agreements respectively.
This is only an epitome of the national key research results of improved wheat varieties. Shandong Luyan Agricultural Seed Co., Ltd. has successfully implemented the first order production of high-quality strong gluten wheat Jinan 17 in China in cooperation with Nanshan Group since the 1990s, breaking the ice and breaking the development dilemma of China's high-quality wheat industry.
"Orders" have effectively promoted the production and industrialized operation of high-quality special-purpose wheat, but there are also many problems in signing high-quality special-purpose wheat orders, among which the instability of wheat quality and supply is the main reason for the low performance rate. Zhou Zhaoyang, general manager of procurement department of Nanshan Group, said that due to the impact of weather during harvest, variety degradation, farmers' field management and other problems, the actual implementation rate is only 30-50% every year.
What is the key to the industrialization of high-quality wheat? "The industrialization of high-quality wheat is not only the industrialization of high-quality varieties, but also not all high-quality wheat." Zhao Zhendong, consultant of the national wheat variety research group and academician of the Chinese Academy of engineering, pointed out that "the development of high-quality wheat industrialization begins with varieties, but the focus is on 'industrialization'."
How to make high-quality varieties realize the leap of industrialization? How to solve the problem of low performance rate of order agriculture? Zhao Zhendong said that in addition to the variety itself, climate, soil and growers are the three major factors affecting high-quality wheat production. The construction of high-quality wheat production core base and field management technical services are important means to solve the problem of the development of China's high-quality wheat industry.
"We should speed up the cultivation of a number of new high-quality wheat varieties with independent intellectual property rights to ensure the absolute safety of rations." Sun Haoqin, deputy inspector of the seed industry management department of the Ministry of agriculture and rural areas, said, "by holding this exhibition and evaluation, we recommend high-quality special wheat varieties to the society, meet the high-quality and high-efficiency flour processing industry and market demand, and play an important variety support for promoting the structural reform of agricultural supply side and improving the quality and efficiency of modern agriculture."